Documented continuous traceable residency over a long period of time, Sacred Sites, Community Recognition as a historic Indian Entity and evidence of Previous Federal Recognition must all be present to have a Historic Tribe.

See the Trademark Case for more information.

    We, the THE NISENAN ME-WUK TRIBE OF EL DORADO COUNTY CALIFORNIA, being a sovereign indigenous people from time immemorial, proclaim that we are the historical, aboriginal CALIFORNIA INDIANS of

    EL DORADO COUNTY, being of NISENAN-ME-WUK decent and having established our villages and sacred grounds throughout the valley and mountains of EL DORADO COUNTY.  As the Wopumnes, signers of the 1851 Treaty of Consumnes River, a 25 mile square area of El Dorado County was designated as our tribal homelands to preserve our sacred grounds and to provide for our generations.

    Our Nisenan-MeWuk Tribal family members appear as residents of El Dorado County, California in regular Federal Censuses and Special Indian Censuses from 1870-Present for El Dorado County. The town of Shingle Springs grew around the Gold Rush Era Wopumnes Village located in between Greenstone and  North Shingle Rd.

    (In contrast the "Verona-Sacramento River Settlers" aka "RedHawk Casino group"  are absent from California Census Records until after 1870 and absent from  El Dorado County Census Records until after 1970. They moved onto the Rancheria after 1977 and they did not start calling themselves Shingle Springs Band of Miwok Indians until 1980 [Fonseca Testimony, Shingle Springs Band of Miwok Indians v. Cesar Caballero, Docket Entry #238 CASE NO. 2:08-CV-03133-KJM-AC].  Check it out for yourself, look in Sutter, Yolo, Sacramento, Santa Clara, Contra Costa, Hawaii, Ireland.)


  3. Special Indian Census for El Dorado County 1905-06 [25 CFR PART 83.12]:
    In 1906, Special Agent C.E. Kelsey, "Census of Off-Reservation Indians",  identified and notated our people as aboriginal Indians of the El Dorado County towns of Aukum, Blairs, ClarksVille, Diamond Springs, El Dorado, Indian Diggings, Latrobe, Mud Springs, Nashville, Pleasant Valley, Placerville, Shingle Springs, Slatington, Sly Park and the Rey District.  Other towns include: Camino, Coloma, and Kelsey.


  4. Special Indian Census for El Dorado County and Land Purchase [25 CFR PART 83.12]:
    In 1915, Agent John Terrell identified us again and wrote down Tribal Members names  living in villages around El Dorado County: El Dorado, Diamond, Aukum, Camino, Shingle Springs, Nashville, Indian Diggins, and Fairplay.  John Terrell then purchased two adjacent parcels [1916 Thomas and 1918 Meldrum/Cooper] of MeWuk ancestral land, located in the district of Shingle Springs, El Dorado County with the vision of it "one day becoming an Indian village".  As those who's lands are ancestral are the highest priority the parcels were designated for El Dorado County Indians use and occupancy as members of our Tribe were named in memorandum on both parcels.


  5. In 1920 the two parcels of our ancestral land were combined in the BIA Land Register for El Dorado County, Shingle Springs Rancheria (Reservation was scratched out) and named the Shingle Springs Rancheria held in trust by the United States Government for the MeWuk Tribe. The 1928 California Indian Jurisdiction Act defined California Indians as “residing in California on June 1, 1852 and their descendants”.

  6. In June 1927, BIA Director Dorrington states there are “189 Indians in El Dorado County”.  When looking at the Californian Indian Rolls and Federal Censuses it is obvious that Dorrington was talking about the El Dorado County resident Mewuks. 

  7. About the IRA Vote, evidence of Unambiguous Federal Recognition
    [25 CFR Part 83.12]:


“In 1935, BIA allowed the El Dorado County MeWuk of the  240 Acre Shingle Springs Rancheria to vote on the question of whether it wished to organize under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, 25 U.S.C. § 476 (1988) (IRA). Section 476 provides that [a]ny Indian tribe, or tribes, residing on the same reservation, shall have the right to organize for its common welfare, and may adopt an appropriate constitution and bylaws, which shall become effective when ratified by a majority vote of the adult members of the tribe, or of the adult Indians residing on such reservation, as the case may be, at a special election authorized and called by the Secretary of the Interior * * *. Section 479 defines "tribe" to mean "any Indian tribe, organized band, pueblo, or the Indians residing on one reservation." 11/ By an election held on June 13, 1935, the

El Dorado MeWuk Tribe of the Shingle Springs Rancheria decided not to organize under the IRA by a vote of 0 to 3.”

Use an online genealogy service like,, and see the records for yourself who the REAL MIWOK TRIBE is.